How did Aristotle criticize Plato’s Republic?

Aristotle is criticizing Plato’s basic approach to political philosophy, an approach that runs throughout the Republic : that of treating the citizens of a city as mere parts … and the city itself as a whole with an end or ends above or beyond the ends of the individuals within the city” (124).

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What did Aristotle say about Plato?

Although Plato had been his teacher, Aristotle disagreed with much of Plato’s philosophy. Plato was an idealist, who believed that everything had an ideal form. Aristotle believed in looking at the real world and studying it. Aristotle spent many years teaching in Athens, which was under the control of Macedon.

Who criticized Plato’s Republic?

The first five chapters of the second book of Aristotle’s Politics contain a series of criticisms levelled against Plato’s Republic.

Why did Aristotle reject Plato’s ideal state?

Plato cannot accept Aristotle’s view on politics and claim that all citizens are capable of operating in the political realm of the state, because if he did then the concept of specialization on which the ideal state is founded, and the complicated education system would both collapse and fail to be justified.

How do Plato and Aristotle’s ideas about art differ?

While Plato condemns art because it is in effect a copy of a copy – since reality is imitation of the Forms and art is then imitation of reality – Aristotle defends art by saying that in the appreciation of art the viewer receives a certain “cognitive value” from the experience (Stumpf, p 99).

How did Aristotle criticize Plato?

Aristotle rejected Plato’s theory of Forms but not the notion of form itself. For Aristotle, forms do not exist independently of things—every form is the form of some thing.

How do Plato and Aristotle differ in the views of political philosophy?

Plato with his political philosophy is aimed at transforming politics. Aristotle aims at studying the existing forms of political reality. Plato believes the policy can be changed. Aristotle believed that politics cannot be changed.

What did Aristotle criticize?

Aristotle is criticizing Plato’s basic approach to political philosophy, an approach that runs throughout the Republic : that of treating the citizens of a city as mere parts … and the city itself as a whole with an end or ends above or beyond the ends of the individuals within the city” (124).

Why was Plato’s Republic important?

Today, Plato’s The Republic is an important part of the western literary canon. The text is still used in classrooms today because Plato asks the ultimate questions about justice and happiness, and the answers to those questions are ever-evolving. His text is also vital for learning to question what is in fact known.

What makes a good leader According to Plato?

Plato proposes instead that states should be governed by philosophers and be a lover of wisdom, which is the meaning of the Greek word, philosophia. Leadership is a duty of philosopher kings who acquire the techniques and skills for the art of ruling.

What were Aristotle’s ideas?

In aesthetics, ethics, and politics, Aristotelian thought holds that poetry is an imitation of what is possible in real life; that tragedy, by imitation of a serious action cast in dramatic form, achieves purification (katharsis) through fear and pity; that virtue is a middle between extremes; that human happiness …

What was Plato’s view of the good does Aristotle agree?

Plato stated that virtue was sufficient for happiness, that there was no such thing as “moral luck” to grant rewards. Aristotle believed that virtue was necessary for happiness, but insufficient by itself, needing adequate social constructs to help a virtuous person feel satisfaction and contentment.

How do Plato and Aristotle differ in their aesthetic ideas?

Plato believed that the pleasure we get from artistic imitations, but whereas he was distributed by it (because he thought our pleasure seduced us into accepting a false view of things), Aristotle was not. He differed from Plato on this point because the artist’s imitation helps us learn something.

How are Aristotle and Plato different?

The main difference between Plato and Aristotle philosophy is that the philosophy of Plato is more theoretical and abstract in nature, whereas the philosophy of Aristotle is more practical and experimental in nature. Plato (c.

Did Plato disagree with Socrates?

Socrates has his teachings centered primarily around epistemology and ethics while Plato was quite concerned with literature, education, society, love, friendship, rhetoric, arts, etc. Socrates disagreed with the concept of overreaching; he describes it as a foolish way to live.

How does Aristotle refute Plato’s view on art and imitation?

Aristotle replied to the charges made by his Guru Plato against poetry in particular and art in general. He replied to them one by one in his defence of poetry. Plato says that art being the imitation of the actual is removed from the Truth.

How did Aristotle support his own philosophy?

In his natural philosophy, Aristotle combines logic with observation to make general, causal claims. For example, in his biology, Aristotle uses the concept of species to make empirical claims about the functions and behavior of individual animals.

Why Aristotle is tragedy superior to Epic?

Tragedy, Aristotle now argues, is superior to epic. Tragedy contains all the elements of the epic, but manages to present its story in a much shorter span of time and with a greater degree of unity. The concentration of the tragic plot heightens its impact on the audience.

What is the conclusion of Plato’s Republic?

Plato ends The Republic on a surprising note. Having defined justice and established it as the greatest good, he banishes poets from his city. Poets, he claims, appeal to the basest part of the soul by imitating unjust inclinations.

Why did Plato and Aristotle criticize democracy?

Plato rejected Athenian democracy on the basis that such democracies were anarchic societies without internal unity, that they followed citizens’ impulses rather than pursuing the common good, that democracies are unable to allow a sufficient number of their citizens to have their voices heard, and that such …

What is Plato’s ideal republic?

Plato’s ideal state was a republic with three categories of citizens: artisans, auxiliaries, and philosopher-kings, each of whom possessed distinct natures and capacities. Those proclivities, moreover, reflected a particular combination of elements within one’s tripartite soul, composed of appetite, spirit, and reason.

What is the main point of Plato’s Republic?

Plato’s Republic is a Socratic dialogue concerning justice in the context of examining the character of the just man and the order of a just polity.

What was Aristotle’s personality like?

Aristotle was much more ambitious, he invented the art of what we still call today, rhetoric – the art of getting people to agree with you. He wanted thoughtful, serious and well-intentioned people to learn how to be persuasive – to reach those who don’t agree already.

What were Plato and Aristotle’s view of leadership?

Aristotle was the younger of the two, and he was Plato’s student. Where leadership is concerned, both philosophers agreed that the “best men” should rule, and that the purpose of leadership was the betterment of the State. They also agreed that education was paramount to forming these best men.

What were Plato’s beliefs?

In metaphysics Plato envisioned a systematic, rational treatment of the forms and their interrelations, starting with the most fundamental among them (the Good, or the One); in ethics and moral psychology he developed the view that the good life requires not just a certain kind of knowledge (as Socrates had suggested)

What are the three main ideas of Aristotle?

To get the basics of Aristotelian ethics, you have to understand three basic things: what Eudaimonia is, what Virtue is, and That We Become Better Persons Through Practice.

How did Aristotle impact society?

Aristotle’s greatest impacts can be seen in his creation of a logic system, established many fields of sciences, and creation of a philosophy system which serves as one of the foundation works of philosophy even to this day. Aristotle was the first person to create and widely disseminate a system of logical thought.

What are Aristotle’s objections to Plato’s theory of mimesis?

Aristotle’s Objection to the Theory of Mimesis

Aristotle believes that there is natural pleasure in imitation which is an in-born instinct in men. It is this pleasure in imitation that enables the child to learn his earliest lessons in speech and conduct from those around him, because there is a pleasure in doing so.

Is Aristotle better than Plato?

Aristotle however exceeded Plato in content and reach. Therefore it is arguable that Aristotle has had a much larger influence than Plato on most of the western world. This was mainly due to his extensive research in various different branches and his unique insight within them.

What are the differences between Socrates Plato and Aristotle?

While Socrates casted fatalistic and monolithic dispositions in his analysis and elaborated his thoughts in dialectic form, Aristotle, in contrast, embraced freedom of choice and diversity (pluralism) and articulated the importance of contingent particularity of historical experiences.

Does Aristotle believe in Akrasia?

It is natural, Aristotle argues, for humans to acknowledge akrasia. Indeed, he argues for two different kinds of akrasia. The first is motivated by impetuosity, or more specifically, passion, which can cause a lapse in reason allowing a person to be led away from what they (still) believe to be good actions.

What did Socrates Aristotle and Plato believe?

Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were all philosophers. Philosophy is the study of knowledge, reality, and existence, especially when considered as an academic discipline. Its Greek name literally means “love of wisdom”.

What would Plato and Socrates agree on?

Plato accepts Socrates’ view that to know the good is to do the good. So his notion of epistemic excellence in seeking knowledge of the forms will be a central component of his conception of moral virtue.

What is the significance of Aristotelian criticism in literature?

It teaches effectively and it teaches the truth. Convincing and powerful drama is convincing and powerful because it reveals some truth of human nature. Introduces the concept of “Organic Unity” – the idea that in any good work of art each of the parts must contribute to the overall success of the whole.

What is the contribution of Aristotle in relation to correction?

Aristotle introduces his account of corrective justice by saying, immediately after he completes his discussion of distributive justice, that “the other kind of justice is the corrective kind” (1131b).

What is Plato’s fear about imitation or mimesis?

Plato and Aristotle on Art as Imitation (Mimesis) Art is imitation, and that’s bad. Problems with imitation: Epistemological: An imitation is at three removes from the reality or truth of something (example of bed).

Why is Aristotle the best philosopher?

Aristotle was one of the greatest philosophers who ever lived and the first genuine scientist in history. He made pioneering contributions to all fields of philosophy and science, he invented the field of formal logic, and he identified the various scientific disciplines and explored their relationships to each other.

What did Aristotle believe in philosophy?

Aristotle’s philosophy stresses biology, instead of mathematics like Plato. He believed the world was made up of individuals (substances) occurring in fixed natural kinds (species). Each individual has built-in patterns of development, which help it grow toward becoming a fully developed individual of its kind.

What is Aristotle’s ethical theory?

Aristotle’s ethics, or study of character, is built around the premise that people should achieve an excellent character (a virtuous character, “ethikē aretē” in Greek) as a pre-condition for attaining happiness or well-being (eudaimonia).

What is Aristotle theory of catharsis?

catharsis, the purification or purgation of the emotions (especially pity and fear) primarily through art. In criticism, catharsis is a metaphor used by Aristotle in the Poetics to describe the effects of true tragedy on the spectator.

Why does Aristotle argue that poetry is higher than history?

Poetry is more “philosophical” than history, according to Aristotle, because in order to unfold a plot in a manner that is convincing to the audience, the poet must grasp and represent the internal logic, the necessity, of the outcome of those events.

What is Aristotle observation on poetry?

He defines poetry as an art that imitates: “imitation . . . is one instinct of our nature” and “the objects of imitation are men in action.” He considers “Comedy . . . an imitation of characters of a lower type;” tragedy is “an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude;” Aristotle …

How might Plato have criticized the organization of today’s democratic governments?

Critique of democracy

He concludes that democracy risks bringing dictators, tyrants, and demagogues to power. He also claims that democracies have leaders without proper skills or morals and that it is quite unlikely that the best equipped to rule will come to power.

Who did Plato believe should be in control of the government?

Plato argues that philosopher kings should be the rulers, as all philosophers aim to discover the ideal polis.

How did Plato and Aristotle differ in their opinions on government?

Plato with his political philosophy is aimed at transforming politics. Aristotle aims at studying the existing forms of political reality. Plato believes the policy can be changed. Aristotle believed that politics cannot be changed.

Which government did Aristotle prefer?

Aristotle considers constitutional government (a combination of oligarchy and democracy under law) the ideal form of government, but he observes that none of the three are healthy and that states will cycle between the three forms in an abrupt and chaotic process known as the kyklos or anacyclosis.

What is Aristotle’s ideal state?

Purpose of ideal state – According to Aristotle, the aim of ideal state is the achievement of a good life, and the material and spiritual (moral and spiritual) means necessary for the attainment of such life are to be arranged.

What does Polemarchus threaten Socrates with in the opening scene of The Republic?

The action begins with Socrates and his brother Glaucon returning home from a religious festival when they are forcibly stopped by his friend Polemarchus, who playfully (?) threatens violence if Socrates won’t stop by his house for a visit.

Why are the just happier than the unjust according to Plato?

Socrates offers three argument in favor of the just life over the unjust life: (i) the just man is wise and good, and the unjust man is ignorant and bad (349b); (ii) injustice produces internal disharmony which prevents effective actions (351b); (iii) virtue is excellence at a thing’s function and the just person lives

What is the opinion of Plato regarding justice in his book The Republic?

In contrast then to Glaucon who affirms a social contract perspective that justice is not intrinsically valuable but only valuable because it prevents individuals from being punished for being unjust. Plato argues that virtue is good in itself because it creates a harmony of the soul that is lacking among the vicious.

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